Essay on accommodating cooperation
Such strategies necessarily determine individual well being and social equality between genders, as well as prospects for growth at the household level.
These outcomes demand consideration from development policy by necessitating an understanding of power dynamics within the household and the role of social institutions in defining them.
Since relatives share part of their genetic make-up, enhancing each other’s chances of survival may actually increase the likelihood that the helper’s genetic traits will be passed on to future generations.
Some researchers assert that cooperation is more complex than this.
Examples of that can be found in market trade, military wars, families, workplaces, schools and prisons, and more generally any institution or organization of which individuals are part (out of own choice, by law, or forced).One reason may be that if the prisoner's dilemma situation is repeated (the iterated prisoner's dilemma), it allows non-cooperation to be punished more, and cooperation to be rewarded more, than the single-shot version of the problem would suggest.It has been suggested that this is one reason for the evolution of complex emotions in higher life forms.The experiment also suggested that altruistic punishment is associated with negative emotions that are generated in unfair situations by the anterior insula of the brain. This behavior appears, however, to occur mostly between relatives.
Spending time and resources assisting a related individual may at first seem destructive to the organism’s chances of survival but is actually beneficial over the long-term.
Together, the essays confront evidence that households engaged in agriculture do not behave as unitary decision makers but are instead sites of conflict and hierarchy.