Validating refinements to laboratory animal housing rafa nadal dating history
To ensure that the way in which animals are bred, cared for and used in procedures within the Union is in line with that of the other international and national standards applicable outside the Union, the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement should be considered systematically when implementing this Directive.
When choosing methods, the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement should be implemented through a strict hierarchy of the requirement to use alternative methods.
It is therefore necessary to improve the welfare of animals used in scientific procedures by raising the minimum standards for their protection in line with the latest scientific developments.
Attitudes towards animals also depend on national perceptions, and there is a demand in certain Member States to maintain more extensive animal-welfare rules than those agreed upon at the level of the Union.
Refinement is the attempt to enhance animal welfare and control extraneous variables that may increase research data variability.
Where possible, it should be substituted by more humane end-points using clinical signs that determine the impending death, thereby allowing the animal to be killed without any further suffering.Accordingly, this Directive should provide for more detailed rules in order to reduce such disparities by approximating the rules applicable in that area and to ensure a proper functioning of the internal market.